Biography of KH. Sholeh Darat

Biography of KH. Sholeh Darat
Sumber Gambar: Istimewa, Ilustrasi: laduni.ID

List of Contents:

1.   Life and Family History
1.1 Birth
1.2 Family History
1.3 Death

2.   Sanad Science and Education
2.1 Education
2.2 Teachers
2.3 Teachers in Mecca
2.4 Fellow Fellows

3.   Successor
3.1 Students

4.   Life Journey and Da'wah
4.1 Kidnapped Home by Mbah Hadi Girikusumo
4.2 Establishing Islamic Boarding Schools

5.   Role model
5.1 The Figure of the Thinker

6.   Karomah
7.   Works

1. Life and Family History

1.1 Birth
Muhammad Shalih bin Umar As-Samarani that is more familiarly known as KH. Sholeh Darat was born around 1820 AD/1235 H. in Dukuh Kedung Jumbleng, Ngroto Village, Mayong District, Jepara Regency.

The name of "Darat" is used by KH. Sholeh began when he was living in area near the north coast of Semarang, namely, a place where people from outside Java anchored (landed). Today, the name Darat remains preserved and used as an inscription for the names of villages, Nipah Darat and Darat Tirto. Currently, Darat Village is part of Dadapsari Village, North Semarang District.

1.2 Family History
During his life, KH. Sholeh Darat was married three times. His first marriage was when he was still in Mecca. And it is not known what his wife's name is. From his first marriage, he blessed with a child named Ibrahim.

When KH. Sholeh Darat returned to Java as his wife had died, while Ibrahim did not come with him to Java. And Ibraham had no descendants memory of his first son (Ibrahim), KH. Sholeh Darat uses the name Abu Ibrahim on the cover page of his book of tafsir, Faidh Al-Rahman.

His second marriage was to Nyai Sofiyah, daughter of KH. Murtadho was a close friend of his father, Kyai Umar after he returned to Semarang. From this marriage, he blessed with two sons, namely:

1. Kyai Yahya,
2. Kyai Khalil.

And from these two sons, he gave birth to several children and descendants who found today.

Meanwhile, his third marriage was to Nyai Aminah, daughter of the Regent of Bulus, Purworejo, of Arab descent. From this marriage, he blessed with children. One of her descendants is Nyai Siti Zahrah. Nyai Siti Zahrah betrothed to KH. Dahlan's student that named is KH. Sholeh Darat from Tremas, Pacitan.

After this marriage, he gave birth to two children, Kyai Rahmad and Aisyah. KH. Dahlan died in Mecca, then Siti Zahrah was betrothed to KH. Amir as also a student himself from Pekalongan. Siti Zahrah's second marriage did not produce children.

1.3 Death
KH. Saleh Darat died in Semarang on Friday Wage, 28 Ramadan 1321 H or at 18 December 1903 AD, the age of 83 years. He buried in the Bergota public cemetery, Semarang. After he died, every 10th of Shawwal, people from various parts of the city made a pilgrimage to attend his haul. Visiting the Grave of KH. Sholeh Darat, Grand Master of the Ulama.

2. Sanad Science and Education

2.1 Education
KH. Sholeh Darat is a cleric who has role to spread Islam on the North Coast of Java, especially in Semarang. And his father, KH. Umar is a prominent scholar who was trusted by Prince Diponegoro in the Javanese War against the Dutch in the northern coastal region of Java.

After receiving religious knowledge from his father, little Kyai Sholeh began to travel, learning from one cleric to another. Recorded, he studied to KH. Syahid Waturaja many fiqh books, such as Fath Al-QaribFath Al Mu'inMinhaj Al-Qawim, and Syarh Al-Khatib. Continue to KH. Ahmad Bafaqih Balawi criticized the study of Jauharah At-Tauhid by Sheikh Ibrahim Al-Laqani and Minhaj Al-Abidin by Al-Ghazali.

Still in the city of Lumpia, Semarang, the book Masa'il As-Sittin by Abu Al-Abbas Ahmad Al-Misri, a deposition of the basic teachings of Islam mainstream in Java around the 19th century, was thoroughly digested by Sheikh Abdul Ghani.

No satisfied yet, thirsty for knowledge, that is the nature of every scholar. Likewise, he followed and studied under KH. Syada' and KH. Murtadla, while later made him his son-in-law. After marriage, KH. Sholeh Darat migrated to Mecca, in a forbidden land, he studied with great scholars, including: Sheikh Muhammad Al-Muqri, Sheikh Muhammad ibn Sulaiman Hasbullah Al-Makki, Sayyid Ahmad ibn Zaini Dahlan, Sheikh Ahmad Nahrawi.

2.2 Teachers

1. KH. Umar (father)
2. KH. M. Shahid
3. KH. Raden Muhammad Shaleh bin Asnawi, Kudus
4. KH. Ishak Damaran, Semarang
5. KH. Abu Abdillah Muhammad bin Hadi Buquni, a mufti in Semarang
6. KH. Ahmad Bafaqih Ba'alawi, Semarang
7. Sheikh Abdul Ghani Bima
8. Mbah Ahmad (Muhammad) Alim Bulus Gebang Purworejo
9. KH. Syada' and KH. Murtadla

2.3 Teachers in Mecca

1. Sheikh Muhammad Al-Muqri
2. Sheikh Muhammad bin Sulaiman Hasbullah Al-Makki
3. Sayyid Ahmad bin Zaini Dahlan
4. Sheikh Ahmad Nahrawi

2.4 Fellow Fellows

While studying in Mecca, KH. Sholeh Darat interacted a lot with Indonesian scholars who studied there. The scholars who were his contemporaries were:

1. Sheikh Nawawi Al-Bantani
A famous cleric from Banten. 

2. Sheikh Ahmad Khatib
He is a cleric from Minangkabau. Born on 6 Dzulhijjah 1276 (26 May 1860 AD) and died in Mecca on 9 Jumadil Awwal (1916 AD). In its history, the two founding figures of NU and Muhamadiyyah KH. Hasyim As'ari and KH. Ahmad Dahlan was once a student of Sheikh Ahmad Khatib. He has written around 49 works. The books such are An-Nafahat and Al-Jawahir fi A'mal Al-Jaibiyyat.

3. KH. Mahfuzh At-Termasi
He is the older brother of KH. Dimyati. While in Mecca, he also studied with KH. Ahmad Zaini Dahlan. he died in 1338 AH (1918 AD).

4. KH. Kholil Bangkalan, Madura.
He was a close friend of KH. Sholeh Darat. The name was famous among the Kyai at the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries. He studied in Mecca around 1860 and died in 1923 AD.

3. Successor

3.1 Students
One of his famous students not from among the ulama was Raden Ajeng Kartini. Because of the role of R.A. Kartini, then KH. Sholeh Darat was known as a pioneer in translating Al-Qur'an into Javanese. At the notes of KH. Sholeh's grandson, R.A. Kartini had an unpleasant experience while studying Islam. His Al-Qur'an's teacher scolded her for asking about the meaning of a verse of Al-Qur'an.

When he visited his uncle's house, the Regent of Demak, R.A. Kartini took the time to attend the recitation given by KH. Sholeh Darat.

At that time he was teaching the interpretation of Surah Al-Fatihah. R.A. Kartini became very interested in KH. Sholeh Darat. In a meeting, R.A. Kartini asked that Al-Qur'an must be translated.  She said that there was no point in reading a holy book if we did not understand the meaning.

But at its time, the Dutch colonialists officially prohibited people from translating Al-Qur'an. KH. Sholeh Darat violated this prohibition. He translated the Koran by writing it in bald Arabic letters (pegon) so that the Dutch colonialists would not suspect him.

This book of interpretation and translation of the Qur'an was named the Book of Faid Ar-Rahman, the first interpretation in the archipelago in Javanese with script. This book was also given to R.A. Kartini when she married R.M. Joyodiningrat, a Regent of Rembang.

Thanks to the depth of knowledge, KH. Sholeh Darat succeeded in molding his students into figures, ulama, kyai, and founders of Islamic boarding schools. His students include:

1. KH. Hasyim Asy'ari (founder of NU)
2. KH. Ahmad Dahlan (founder of Muhammadiyah)
3. KH. R. Ahmad Dahlan Tremas, a Falak Expert (d. 1329 H)
4. KH. Amir Pekalongan (d. 1357 H) who was also the son-in-law of Kiai Shaleh Darat
5. KH. Idris (real name Slamet) Solo
6. KH. Sya'ban bin Hasan Semarang wrote the article "Qabul al-'Ataya 'an Answeri ma Shadara li Syaikh Abi Yahya, to correct one of the parts of the book Majmu'at al-Syari'ah by Kiai Shaleh Darat.
7. KH. Abdul Hamid Kendal
8. KH. Tahir, successor to the Mangkang Wetan Islamic boarding school, Semarang
9. KH. Sahli Kauman Semarang
10. KH. Dimyati Tremas
11. KH. Chalil Rembang
12. KH. Munawir Krapyak Yogyakarta
13. KH. Dalhar Watucongol Muntilan Magelang
14. KH. Yasin Rembang
15. KH. Ridwan Ibnu Mujahid Semarang
16. KH. Abdus Shamad Surakarta
17. KH. Yasir Areng Rembang
18. R.A. Kartini Jepara.

4. Life Journey and Da'wah

4.1 Kidnapped Home by Mbah Hadi Girikusumo
The height of KH. Sholeh Darat's knowledge can not only be seen from his monumental works and the success of his students in becoming great kyai but can also be seen from the recognition of the ruler of Makkah when KH. Sholeh Darat Darat lives in Makkah.

He chosen to be one of the teachers in Mecca. This time is where KH. Sholeh Darat met Mbah Hadi Girikusumo, founder of the Ki Ageng Girikusumo Islamic boarding school, Mranggen, Demak, Central Java. He was a figure who played an urgent role in presenting KH. Sholeh Darat to the land of Semarang.

After seeing the greatness of KH. Sholeh Darat, Mbah Hadi Girikusumo felt called to invite him to return together to his homeland to develop Islam and teach Muslims in Java who were still laymen.

However, because KH. Sholeh Darat roped in by the Makkah authorities to become a teacher in Makkah, so he rejected invitation of back home. However, Mbah Hadi was reckless, then KH. Sholeh Darat kidnapped and asked to go home. In order not to get caught, when he wanted to board a ship to return to Java, KH. Sholeh Darat droped in a chest with his belongings. However, on the way, it discovered that Mbah Hadi had kidnapped one of the clerics at the Makkah Mosque. Finally, when the ship docked at the port of Singapore, Mbah Hadi was arrested.

To be free, it must pay a certain amount of money as a fine. Mbah Hadi's students who were in Singapore khow that their teacher found a big problem, finally helped solve the problem by collecting contribution funds to atone for Mbah Hadi's mistakes. It make compensation to the Makkah authorities for KH's departure. Sholeh Darat. Finally, Mbah Hadi and KH. Sholeh Darat managed to continue his journey and managed to land in Java.

Mbah Hadi immediately returned to Girikusumo, while KH. Sholeh Darat settled in Semarang, founded an Islamic boarding school and created cadres to continue the Islamic struggle.

4.2 Establishing Islamic Boarding Schools

KH.'s missionary journey. Sholeh Darat started as a seconded teacher at the Salatiyang Islamic boarding school in Maron Village, Loano District, Purworejo. This Islamic boarding school was founded around the 18th century by three Sufis, each KH. Ahmad (Muhammad) Alim, KH. Muhammad Alim (son of Mbah KH. Ahmad Alim), and KH. Zain al Alim (Muhammad Zein, also son of Mbah KH. Ahmad Alim).

In subsequent developments, this Islamic boarding school entrusted to KH. Zain al Alim. And Mbah KH. Ahmad (Muhammad) Alim took care of an Islamic boarding school, later named Al-Iman, in Bulus village, Gebang District.

As for KH. Muhammad Alim (son of Mbah KH. Ahmad Alim) also developed his Islamic boarding school in Maron Village, known as the Al-Anwar Islamic boarding school. So position of KH. Sholeh Darat is a teacher who helps KH. Zain al Alim (Muhammad Zein).

The Salatiyang Islamic Boarding School it self focuses more on memorizing Al-Qur'an, in addition to teaching the yellow book. It is where the big possibility, KH. Sholeh Darat was assigned teaching the yellow book, such as fiqh, tafsir and nahwu Sharaf, to the students who memorized Al-Qur'an.

Among the students who graduated from Salatiyang were KH. Baihaqi (Magelang). KH. Ma'aif, Wonosobo, KH. Muttaqin, Central Lampung, KH. Hidayat (Ciamis), KH. Fathulah (Indramayu), and so on.

It is not known how long KH. Sholeh Darat teaches at the Salatiyang Islamic Boarding School. History only records that around the 1870s KH. Sholeh Darat founded a new Islamic boarding school in Darat, Semarang.

This number calculation based on his book, Al-Hikam, written in Pegon Arabic in 1289 H/1871 AD. Pesantren Darat is the second oldest Islamic boarding school in Semarang after the Dondong Islamic boarding school, Mangkang Wetan, Semarang which was founded by KH. Syada' and KH. Darda', two former Diponegoro soldiers. In this Islamic boarding school, KH. Sholeh Darat had studied before going to Mecca.

While taking care of the Islamic boarding school, KH. Sholeh Darat is known to pay little attention to Islamic boarding school institutions. Because of this factor, the Darat Islamic boarding school disappeared without a trace after the death of KH. Sholeh Darat, in 1903 M. is said to have coincided with the death of KH. Sholeh Darat, one of his senior students, KH. Idris from Solo has brought many students from the Darat Islamic Boarding School to Solo. KH. Idris was the one who then revived the Jamsaren Islamic Boarding School, which founded by KH. Jamsar.

Another version states that the Islamic boarding school founded by KH. Sholeh Darat is not an Islamic boarding school in the true sense, where there is a physical building that supports it. The Darat Islamic Boarding School is just a study assembly with quality studies attended by kalong students.

It might happen, considering the proximity of the Darat Islamic boarding school to the Mangkang Islamic boarding school, where KH. Sholeh Darat studied there, which could influence the level of laughter of senior kyai.

5. Role model

5.1 The Figure of the Thinker
KH. Sholeh Darat is known as a thinker in the field of kalam science. He is a supporter of Ash'ariyah and Maturidiyah theology. His defense of this understanding is visible in his book, Tarjamah Sabil Al-'Abid 'Alajauhar At-Tauhid. In this book, he presents his interpretation of the words of the Prophet Muhammad regarding the splitting of the Muslim community into 73 groups after his death, and only one group survived.

According to KH. Sholeh Darat, what the Prophet Muhammad SAW meant by the safe group were those who behaved as the Prophet Muhammad SAW did, namely implementing the standard beliefs of Ahlussunah wal JamaahAsy'ariyah, and Maturidiyah.

KH. Sholeh Darat also always encourages his students to be active in studying. He said, "The essence of the Qur'an is an encouragement to mankind to use their minds to fulfill the demands of life in this world and the hereafter".

In the book tarjamah Sabil Al-'Abid 'Alajauharah Al-Tauhid, KH. Sholeh Darat advises that people who do not have any knowledge at all in their faith will fall into misguided beliefs and understandings.

For example, spiritual wisdom emphasizes that the deeds accepted by Allah Ta'ala are deeds of the soul paralleled by Sheikh Siti Jenar's understanding of manunggaling kawulo Gusti and ended tragically in blind taklid behavior. The faith of taklid people is not valid according to muhaqqiqin ulama.

It is also further warned that ordinary people should not be fascinated by the behavior of people who claim to have legitimate knowledge but abandon other sharia practices, such as prayer and other fardhu practices. Disobedience disguised as goodness is still called evil because that is the essence of his religious teachings.

As a forward-thinking cleric, he always emphasized the need for effort and hard work, and then he put his trust in it, leaving everything to Allah SWT. He is so sad if there are people who don't want to work hard because they view their fate as predestined by Allah SWT. He also disagrees with the theory of human freedom that places humans as the ultimate creator of all actions. This tradition of critical thinking and teaching religious knowledge continued to develop until the end of his life.

6. Karomah
As Waliyullah KH. Sholeh Darat is also known to have karomah. His grave has become a pilgrimage destination for many people. One of the famous saints who like to visit his grave is Gus Miek (KH. Hamim Jazuli).

It is said that once KH. Shaleh Darat is walking towards Semarang. Then Dutch soldiers passed by in cars. As soon as their car overtook KH. Sholeh suddenly broke down. The car can run again after the Dutch soldiers give a lift to KH. Sholeh Darat.

At other times, because of the influence of KH. Sholeh Darat is a big Dutch government that tried to bribe KH. Sholeh Darat. So someone sent to give KH. Sholeh Darat a lot of money. Sholeh, with the hope that KH. Sholeh Darat was willing to compromise with the Dutch colonialists.

After knowing that KH. Sholeh Darat was very angry, suddenly he turned the lump of stone into gold in front of the Dutch envoy. But then KH. Sholeh Darat regrets showing his character in front of people. He reportedly cried a lot when he remembered this incident until the end of his life.

7. Works
Many Indonesian scholars produced major works at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Not a few of their works written in Arabic. After KH. Ahmad Rifa'i from Kalisalak (1786-1875 AD) wrote many books in Javanese, apparently KH. Sholeh Darat was the only kyai of the late 19th century whose religious writings were in Javanese.

As for the works of KH. Sholeh Darat, some of which are translations, number more than 13, namely:

1. Majmu'at Syari'at Al-Kafiyat li Al-Awam. This book specially discusses fiqh issues written in Javanese with Pegon Arabic letters.
2. Munjiyat Metik Sangking Ihya' Ulum Al-Din Al-Ghazali. This book is an excerpt from Ihya' Ulum Al-Din juz 3 and 4.
3. Al-Hikam by Ahmad bin Athaillah. This book is a translation into Javanese.
4. Lathaif Al-Thaharah. This book contains the essence and secrets of prayer, fasting, and the virtues of the months of Muharram, Rajab, and Sha'ban. This book written in Javanese.
5. Manasik Al-Haj. This book contains guidelines or procedures for the Hajj pilgrimage.
6. Pasolatan. This book contains matters relating to the five daily prayers (guidelines for praying), written in Javanese with pegon Arabic letters.
7. Sabillu 'Abid translated by Jauhar Al-Tauhid, by Ibrahim Laqqani. This book is a Javanese translation.
8. Minhaj Al-Atqiya'. This book contains guidance for people who are devout or how to get closer to Allah SWT.
9. Al-Murshid Al-Wajiz. This book contains the sciences of the Koran and the science of Tajweed.
10. Hadith Al-Mi'raj
11. Syarh Maulid Al-Burdah
12. Faidh Al-Rahman. This book written on 5 Rajab 1309 H/1891M. This book published in Singapore.
13. Asnar Al-Shalah

Almost all of KH. Sholeh Darat is written in Javanese and uses Arabic letters (Pegon or Jawi), and only a small part is written in Arabic from the 13 books by KH. Sholeh Darat was successfully collected.

Some of these books were printed in Bombay (India) and Singapore. Until now, the descendants of KH. Sholeh Darat continues to search and trace these books to each family descendant of KH. Sholeh Darat in Jepara, Kendal, even to Middle Eastern countries.