Biography of KH. Muhammad Hasyim Asy'ari

Biography of KH. Muhammad Hasyim Asy'ari
Sumber Gambar: foto istimewa

Table of Contents Profile KH. Muhammad Hasyim Asy'ari

1.        Life and Family History
1.1      Born
1.2      Passed Away
1.3      Family History

2.       Sanad Knowledge and Education
2.1     Wandering to Gain Knowledge
2.2     His Masters

3.        Established Pesantren Tebuireng

4.       His Successor
4.1     His Children
4.2     His Diciples

5.       His Merits and Works
5.1     His Merits
5.2     His Works

6.       Exemplary Stories
6.1     When Kiai Hasyim and Kiai Kholil Struggle to become Pesantren student
6.2     Taking his Master's Ring from the Toilet Hole


Life and Family History

1.1 Born

KH. Mohammad Hasyim Asy'ari was born on April 10, 1875 (24 Dzulqaidah 1287H). Hasyim is the third son of 11 children from the couple KH. Asy'ari, the leader of the Pesantren Keras, Jombang and Nyai Halimah.

From his father's lineage, KH. Hasyim Asy'ari has a lineage up to the Prophet Muhammad SAW. His lineage is as follows:

  1. Husayn bin Ali
  2. Ali Zainal Abidin
  3. Muhammad al-Baqir
  4. Ja'far ash-Sadiq
  5. Ali al-Uraidhi
  6. Muhammad an-Naqib
  7. Isa ar-Rumi
  8. Ahmad al-Muhajir
  9. Ubaidullah
  10. Alwi Awwal
  11. Muhammad Sahibus Saumiah
  12. Alwi ats-Tsani
  13. Ali Khali' Qasam
  14. Muhammad Shahib Mirbath
  15. Alwi Ammi al-Faqih
  16. Abdul Malik (Ahmad Khan)
  17. Abdullah (al-Azhamat) Khan
  18. Ahmad Shah Jalal (Jalaluddin Khan)
  19. Jamaluddin Akbar al-Husaini (Maulana Akbar)
  20. Maulana Ishaq
  21. 'Ainul Yaqin (Sunan Giri)
  22. Abdurrohman / Jaka Tingkir (Sultan Pajang)
  23. Abdul Halim (Prince of Benawa)
  24. Abdurrohman (Prince Samhud Bagda)
  25. Abdul Halim
  26. Abdul Wahid
  27. Abu Sarwan
  28. KH. Ash'ari (Jombang)
  29. KH. Hasyim Asy'ari (Jombang)

1.2 Passed Away

KH. Hasyim Asy'ari died on July 25, 1947. He was buried in Tebu Ireng, Jombang and is one of the National Heroes of Indonesia.

1.3 Family History

KH. Hasyim Asy'ari spent his single life by marrying the daughter of Kiai Ya'qub Sidoarjo, Nyai Khodijah. The marriage with Nyai Khodijah did not longer, because when Kiai Hasim Asy'ari was studying in Mecca, his wife died in 1901.

After his first wife died, then Kiai Hasyim remarried to Nyai Nafiqoh the daughter of Kiai Ilyas, the caretaker of the Pesantren Sewulan Madiun. Their marriage brought some children, Kiai Hasyim and Nyai Nafiqoh were blessed with 12 children. The names of the sons and daughters of Kiai Hasyim are as follows:

  1. Hannah
  2. Khoiriyah
  3. Aisyah
  4. Azzah
  5. Abdul Wahid Hasyim
  6. Abdul Hakim (Abdul Kholik)
  7. Abdul Karim
  8. Ubaidillah
  9. Mashuroh
  10. Muhammad Yusuf

2. Sanad of His Knowledge and Education

2.1 Wandering to Gain Knowledge

Since childhood, KH. Hasyim Asyari learned the basics of religion from his father, KH. Asy'ari and his grandfather, Kiai Utsman (caretaker of Pesantren Nggedang in Jombang).

At the age of 15, Kiai Hasyim began to explore various Pesantren (Islamic boarding schools, including: pesantren Wonokoyo  in Probolinggo, Pesantren  Langitan in Tuban, Pesantren  Trenggilis in Semarang,pesantren Kademangan in Bangkalan and pesantren Siwalan in Sidoarjo.

At the pesantren Siwalan, Sidoarjo, which was taken care of by Kiai Ya'qub, it seems that Kiai Hasyim really felt he had found the desired source of Islam. Kiai Ya'qub is known as a scholar who is broad-minded and pious in the science of religion. It took five years for Kiai Hasyim to absorb knowledge at the pesantren Siwalan.

With the intelligence and wisdom of Kiai Hasyim, it seems that Kiai Ya'qub himself has a heavy feeling for Kiai Hasyim. Finally, Kiai Ya'qub married one of his daughters, Khodijah, to Kiai Hasyim.

Not long after marriage, Kiai Hasyim and his wife went to Mecca to perform the pilgrimage. Seven months there, Hasyim returned to his homeland, but unfortunately, his wife and child had died.

In 1893, Kiai Hasyim left again for the Holy Land.  Then Kiai Hasyim lived in Mecca for 7 years.

2.2 His Masters

  1. Shaykh Ahmad Khatib Minangkabau
  2. Shaykh Mahfudz At-Tarmasi
  3. Shaykh Ahmad Amin Al Athtar
  4. Sheikh Ibrahim Arab
  5. Shaykh Said Yamani
  6. Shaykh Rahmaullah
  7. Shaykh Sholeh Bafadlal
  8. Sayyid Abbas Maliki
  9. Sayyid Alwi bin Ahmad As Saqqaf
  10. Sayyid Husein Al-Habsyi
  11. KH. Muhammad Saleh Darat, Semarang
  12. KH. Kholil Bangkalan
  13. Kyai Ya'qub, Sidoarjo
  14. Sayyid Husayn Al Habsyi
  15. Sayyid Sulthan Hasyim al-Daghistani
  16. Sayyid Abdullah al-Zawawi
  17. Sayyid Ahmad bin Hasan al-Atthas
  18. Sayyid Abu Bakr Syatha al-Dimyathi
  19. Sayyid Ahmad Zaini Dahlan
  20. Obtained a diploma from Habib Abdullah bin Ali Al Haddad
  21. Sheikh Imam Nawawi al-Bantani
  22. Sayyid al Bakry Muhammad Syatho
  23. Muhammad Amin Al Kurdi
  24. Yusuf bin Ismail Anabhani

3. Established Pesantren Tebuireng

In l899, Kiai Hasyim back to  Indonesia. Kiai Hasyim teaches at a pesantren owned by his grandfather, Kiai Utsman. Not long after, Kiai Hasyim bought a plot of land from a pupeteer in Dukuh Tebuireng. It is located approximately 200 meters west of the Cukir Sugar Factory. There he built a building made of bamboo (Javanese: tratak) as a place to live.

From this small bamboo house, Pesantren Tebuireng began to grow. Kiai Hasyim teaches and prays in congregation in the front tratak, while the rear tratak is used as a residence. At that time there were 8 students, three months later it increased to 28 people and every month every month more students came from various regions.

Kiai Hasyim is not only a famous Islamic teacher (Kiai), but also a successful farmer and trader. The land is tens of hectares. Two days a week, Kiai Hasyim usually takes a break from teaching. That's when Kiai Hasyim inspected his rice fields. Sometimes they also go to Surabaya to trade horses, iron and sell their agricultural products. From farming and trading, Kiai Hasyim supports his family and pesantren.

4.His Successor

After establishing the pesantren, one by one the students came to join the Qor’an at pesantren Tebuireng. Finally, thousands of students studied with Kiai Hasyim and created alumni who became prominent figures, scholars, Islamic teacher (kiai) and so on.

4.1 His Children

  1. Hannah
  2. Khoiriyah
  3. Aisyah
  4. Azzah
  5. Abdul Wahid Hasyim
  6. Abdul Hakim (Abdul Kholik)
  7. Abdul Karim
  8. Ubaidillah
  9. Mashuroh
  10. Muhammad Yusuf
  11. Abdul Qodir
  12. Fatimah
  13. Khotijah
  14. Muhammad Ya’kub

4.2 His Disciples

The names of Kiai Hasyim's students include:

  1. KH. Abdul Wahab Hasbullah, Pesantren  Tambak Beras, Jombang
  2. KH. Bisri Syansuri, Pesantren Denanyar, Jombang
  3. KH. R As'ad Syamsul Arifin
  4. KH. Wahid Hasyim (his son)
  5. KH. Ahmad Siddiq
  6. Sheikh Sa'dullah al-Maimani (Mufti in Bombay, India)
  7. Sheikh Umar Hamdan (Hadith Expert in Makkah)
  8. Al-Shihab Ahmad ibn Abdullah (Syria)
  9. KH. R Asnawi (Kudus)
  10. KH. Dahlan (Kudus)
  11. KH. Saleh (Tayu)

5. His Services and Works

5.1 His Merits

Establishing Nahdlatul Ulama (NU)
In 1924, the Taswirul Afkar discussion group wanted to expand its wings by establishing an organization with a larger scope. Hadratus Shaykh KH. Hasyim Asy'ari, who was asked for his approval, asked for time to do the istikharah prayer, asking for instructions from Allah.

Waited for so long, the instructions have not yet arrived. Kiai Hasyim was very nervous. In his small heart, he wanted to meet his teacher, KH. Kholil bin Abdul Latif, Bangkalan.

Meanwhile, the distance between Jombang and Bangkalan is a very long distance. But with the advantages given by Allah SWT, Kiai Khalil who was in Bangkalan knew what was experienced by Kiai Hasyim.

Then, Kiai Kholil then sent one of his students named As'ad Syamsul Arifin (later KH. R As'ad Syamsul Arifin as the caretaker of Pesantren Salafiyah Syafi'iyah Situbondo), to deliver a prayer beads to Kiai Hasyim in Tebuireng. Youth As'ad was also ordered to arrive at Tebuireng to read the letter of  Thaha verse 23 to Kiai Hasyim.

When Kiai Hasyim received As'ad's arrival, and heard the verse, his heart immediately trembled. "My wish to form a jamiyah seems to have been achieved," he said softly while shedding tears.

Time goes on, but the establishment of the organization has not yet been realized. It seems that Kiai Hasyim is still waiting for steadfastness.

One year later (1925), the young As'ad returned to meet Hadratus Shaykh. "Kyai, Kiai Kholil has sent me to deliver this prayer beads," said the youth Asad, showing the prayer beads that Kiai Kholil hung around his neck.

As'ad's hand had never touched the prayer beads, even though the journey between Bangkalan to Tebuireng was very far and there were many obstacles. In fact, he was willing to not take a bath during the trip, because he was worried that his hands would touch the prayer beads. He has the principle, "This necklace is the Kiai who puts it on, so the Kiai must also take it off." This is one of the attitudes of students obedience to the teacher.

"Kiai Kholil also asked to practice  wirid Ya Jabbar, Ya Qahhar every time," added As'ad.

The presence of the second As'ad made Kiai Hasyim's heart more stable. Hadratus Shaykh took a hint that his teacher did not mind if he and his friends set up an organization/jam'iyah. This is the answer he has been waiting for through the istikhara prayer.

On 16 Rajab 1344 H/31 January 1926 AD, the organization was officially established, under the name Nahdlatul Ulama, which means the revival of the ulama. Kiai Hasyim is believed to be the first Rais Akbar.

Jihad Resolution
At that time, the presence of Kiai Hasyim became a serious concern for the invaders. Both the Netherlands and Japan tried to embrace it. Among them he was awarded a service star in 1937, but was rejected by Kiai Hasyim.

In fact, Kiai Hasyim had time to confuse the Dutch by making orders to his students and followers. The order contained, first, Kiai Hasyim issued an instruction (fatwa) that the war against the Dutch was a jihad (holy war). Second, Kiai Hasyim forbade the pilgrimage using a Dutch ship.

The order was written in Arabic and widely broadcast by the Ministry of Religion.

This of course made Van der Plas (the Dutch ruler) confused and finally with the regulations made by Kiai Hasyim, he was imprisoned for 3 months in 1942. Uniquely, because he was so solemn to his teacher, several students asked to be imprisoned with Kiai Hasyim.

The Struggle Against Invaders
The early period of Kiai Hasyim's struggle in Tebuireng coincided with the increasingly repressive treatment of the Dutch colonialists against the Indonesian people. The Company's troops did not hesitate to kill residents who were considered to be against the colonial laws. Pesantren Tebuireng, Jombang, did not escape the Dutch repression.

In 1913 AD Dutch intelligence sent a thief to make trouble in Tebuireng. However, he was caught and beaten by the students to death. This incident was used by the Dutch to arrest Kiai Hasyim on charges of murder.

During the investigation, Kiai Hasyim, who was very proficient with Dutch laws, was able to tactically dismiss all of these accusations. Finally he was released from the bondage of the law.

Not satisfied with the way of fighting each other, the Dutch then sent several companies of troops to destroy the pesantren which had only been established in the tens of years. As a result, almost the entire pesantren building was destroyed, and books were destroyed and burned. This repressive Dutch treatment continued until the physical revolution of the 1940s.

In March 1942, the Dutch East Indies government surrendered to the Japanese in Kalijati, near Bandung, so that de facto and de jure, Indonesian power changed hands to the Japanese army.

The occupation of Dai Nippon marked the arrival of a new era for Muslims. In contrast to the repressive Dutch against Islam, Japan combined policies of repression and co-optation, in an effort to gain the support of Muslim leaders.

One of Japan's repressive treatments was the detention of Hadratus Shaykh and a number of his sons and relatives. This was done because Kiai Hasyim refused to do seikerei. That is the obligation to line up and bow towards Tokyo every 07.00 am, as a symbol of respect for Emperor Hirohito and obedience to the Sun God (Amaterasu Omikami). This activity is also mandatory for all citizens in the Japanese occupied territory, every time they pass or pass in front of Japanese soldiers.

Kiai Hasyim rejected the rule. Because only Allah must be worshiped, not humans. As a result, Kiai Hasyim was arrested and detained intermittently, starting from the Jombang prison, then Mojokerto, and finally to the Bubutan prison, Surabaya.

Because of their loyalty and belief that Hadratus Shaykh was on the right side, a number of Tebuireng students asked to be arrested. While in detention, Kiai Hasyim was subjected to many physical tortures so that one of his fingers was broken and he could not move.

After the detention of Hadratus Shaykh, all teaching and learning activities at the Pesantren Tebuireng, Jombang were completely vacuumed. The detention also caused Hadratus Shaykh's family to fall apart. Kiai Hasyim's wife, Nyai Masruroh, had to flee to the Pesantren Denanyar, west of Jombang City.

On August 18, 1942, after 4 months in prison, Kiai Hasyim was released by the Japanese because of the many protests from the Kiai and santri. In addition, the release of Kiai Hasyim was also thanks to the efforts of KH. Wahid Hasyim and KH. Abdul Wahab Hasbullah in contacting Japanese dignitaries, especially Saikoo Sikikan in Jakarta.

On October 22, 1945, when the NICA (Netherland Indian Civil Administration) troops formed by the Dutch government took the Allied troops led by the British, trying to attack the land of Java (Surabaya) with the excuse of taking care of Japanese prisoners, Kiai Hasyim together with the ulama called for a Jihad Resolution against the joint NICA and British troops. The Jihad Resolution was signed at the NU Bubutan office, Surabaya.

As a result, a universal people's war broke out in the historic battle of November 10, 1945. The Muslims who heard the Jihad Resolution came out of the villages with whatever weapons they could against the joint forces of NICA and Britain. The events of 10 November were later commemorated as National Heroes Day.

During the struggle to expel the invaders, Kiai Hasyim was known as an advocate, advisor, as well as general in the armies of struggle such as the GPII, Hezbollah, Sabilillah, and the Mujahideen movement. Even General Sudirman and Bung Tomo always asked Kiai Hasyim for directions.

Become the general chairman of the Masjumi Party
On November 7, 1945, three days before the outbreak of the war on November 10, 1945 in Surabaya, Muslims formed a political party called the Indonesian Muslim Syuro Council (Masyumi). The formation of Masjumi is one of the steps to consolidate Muslims from various schools of thought. Kiai Hasyim was appointed as the first Rois 'am (General Chair) for the period 1945-1947.

5.2 His Works

As for some of the works of KH. Hasyim Asy'ari which can still be found and is a mandatory book to be studied in Indonesian Pesantren, the books consist of, :

At-Tibyan fi al-Nahy'an Muqatha'at al-Arham wa al-Aqarib wa al-Ikhwan

This book was completed on Monday, 20 Shawwal 1260 H and later published by Muktabah al-Turats al-Islami, Pesantren Tebuireng. The book contains an explanation of the importance of building brotherhood in the midst of differences and provides an explanation of the dangers of breaking the ties of brotherhood or friendship.

Muqaddimah al-Qanun al-Asasi li Jam'iyyat Nahdlatul Ulama

This book contains the thoughts of KH. Hasyim Asy'ari. Especially with regard to NU. In the book, KH. Hasyim Asy'ari quoted several verses and hadiths that became the basis for establishing NU. For NU activists, the book may be considered as their mandatory reading.

Treatise fi Ta'kid al-Akhdzi bi Mazhab al-A'immah al-Arba'ah

In this book, KH. Hasyim Asy'ari did not just explain the thoughts of four madhhab priests, namely Imam Shafi'i, Imam Malik, Imam Abu Hanifah and Imam Abu Ahmad bin Hanbal. However, he also explained the reasons why the thoughts of the four priests should be used as a reference.

Arba'ina Hadith Tata'allaqu bi Mabadi' Jam'iyyat Nahdlatul Ulama

As the title suggests, this book contains forty selected hadiths that are very appropriate to be used as guidelines by NU residents. Hadith selected by KH. Hasyim Asy'ari is mainly concerned with the hadiths that explain the importance of holding on to principles in a life full of obstacles and obstacles.

Adab al-'Alim wa al-Muta'alim fi ma Yanhaju Ilaih al-Muta'allim fi Maqamati Ta'limihi

Basically, this book is a resume from the book Adab al-Mu'allim by Sheikh Muhamad bin Sahnun, Ta'lim al-Muta'allim fi Tariqat al-Ta'allum by Sheikh Burhanuddin az-Zarnuji, and Tadzkirat al-Syaml wa al -Mutakalli fi Adab al-Alim wa al-Muta'allim by Sheikh Ibn Jamaah. Although it is a form of resume from these books, but in the book we can see how much attention KH. Hasyim Asy'ari towards the world of education.

Feel Ahl aas-Sunnah wa al-Jamaah fi Hadts al-Mauta wa Syuruth as-Sa'ah wa Bayani Mafhum as-Sunnah wa al-Bid'ah

The work of KH. Hasyim Asy'ari this one perhaps can be said as a relevant book to be studied at this time. This is because it discusses a lot about how exactly the affirmation between sunnah and bid'ah is. Indirectly, the book discusses many issues that will arise in the future. Especially at this time.

In several works KH. Hasyim Asy'ari, we can conclude how big and wide the attention of KH. Hasyim Asy'ari towards religion and how deep his knowledge in this field is.

The works of KH. Hasyim Asy'ari is an undeniable proof that he is indeed a sam mujtahid cleric who has produced many priceless legacies, both in terms of science and in terms of organization like NU.

6. Exemplary Stories

6.1 When Kiai Hasyim and Kiai Kholil Struggle to become Santri

Once there was an impressive dialogue between two great scholars, KH. Hasyim Asy'ari with KH. Kholil Bangkalan, the teacher. "I used to teach Mr. But today, I declare that I am Tuan's student,” said KH. Kholil, as Kiai from Madura is popularly called.

Kiai Hasyim replied, “I really didn't expect Tuan Guru to say such words. Didn't Master Teacher misunderstand me, a disciple of the Master himself, Master Teacher's disciple then, and also now. In fact, will remain Master Master's disciple forever and ever."

Without being flattered, Kiai Kholil persisted in his intentions. "Our decision and the certainty of our hearts are fixed, cannot be negotiated and changed again, that we will also study here, accommodate your knowledge, and learn from you," he said. Because he had memorized the character of his teacher, Kiai Hasyim could not do anything other than accept him as a student.

The funny thing is, when they came down from the mosque after the congregational prayer, the two of them quickly went to the sandals area, sometimes even overtaking each other, because they wanted to put it on the teacher's feet.

In fact, it may happen that a student ends up being smarter than the teacher. And it happens a lot. However, what Kiai Hasyim also showed was KH. Kholil Bangkalan is the glory of morality. Both show humility and mutual respect.

KH. Kholil was a Kiai who was very famous in his day. Almost all of the founders of NU and important figures of the early generation of NU have studied with the caregiver and leader of the Pesantren Kademangan, Bangkalan, Madura, this.

While Kiai Hasyim himself was no less brilliant. Not only is he the founder and supreme leader of NU, who has a very strong influence on the ulama, but also because of the height of his knowledge. Especially, famous for being qualified in the science of Hadith. Every Ramadan Kiai Hasyim has a 'tradition' of holding a study of Bukhari and Muslim hadith for an entire month. The study was able to attract the attention of Muslims.

So do not be surprised if the participants come from various regions in Indonesia, including his own former teacher, KH Kholil Bangkalan. Thousands of students gain knowledge from Kiai Hasyim.

No doubt in the 20th century Tebuireng was the largest and most important pesantren in Java. Zamakhsyari Dhofier, author of the book 'Tradisi Pesantren', notes that the Pesantren Tebuireng is a source of ulama and leaders of pesantren institutions throughout Java and Madura. No wonder his followers then gave the title Hadratus-Shaykh (Tuan Guru Besar) to Kiai Hasyim.

6.2 Taking his Master's Ring from the Toilet Hole

One of the secrets of a student being able to successfully gain knowledge from his teacher is to be obedient and respectful to his teacher. Teachers are people who have knowledge. While students are people who get knowledge from the teacher. A disciple must be devoted to his teacher. He must not argue, let alone oppose the teacher's orders (unless the teacher teaches a teaching that is despicable and contrary to Islamic law, the student must not obey it). If the teacher's orders are good, students cannot argue with them.

This is what Kiai Hasyim Asy'ari did. He studied at KH. Kholil Bangkalan, Bangkalan. In Kiai Kholil's hut, Kiai Hasyim was taught his morals. Every day, Kiai Hasyim was told by his teacher to take care of the cows and goats. Kiai Hasyim was ordered to clean the cage and look for grass. The knowledge that Kiai Kholil gave to his students was not a theoretical one, but a practical one. direct application.

As a student, Kiai Hasyim never complained about being asked by his teacher to raise cows and goats. He accepted the teacher's order as a tribute to the teacher. He realized that knowledge from his teacher would be successfully obtained if the teacher was pleased with his students. This is what Kiai Hasyim is looking for, namely the pleasure of the teacher. He did not only face the theoretical knowledge of Kiai Kholil but more than that, what he wanted was the blessing of Kiai Kholil Bangkalan.

One day, as usual Kiai Hasyim, after putting the cows and goats into his cage, Kiai Hasyim immediately took a bath and prayed Asr. Before he could take a shower, Kiai Hasyim saw his teacher, Kiai Kholil, thinking to himself. It's like something is stuck in the teacher's heart. So Kiai Hasyim was brave enough to ask Kiai Kholil.

"What's the matter, teacher, why do you look sad," asked Kiai Hasyim to Kiai kholil Bangkalan.

"How can you not be sad, my student. The ring my wife gave me fell in the bathroom. then it goes into the septic tank,” Kiai Kholil replied in a sad tone.

Hearing the teacher's answer, Kiai Hasyim immediately asked for permission to help find the fallen ring and was given permission. Immediately Kiai Hasyim went into the bathroom and dismantled the septic tank.

You can imagine, what is the name of the septitank inside and what are its contents. But Kiai Hasyim out of respect and pity for the teacher did not think long. He went straight into the septitank and removed its contents. After being completely drained, and Kiai Hasyim's body full of dirt, finally the ring belonging to his teacher was found.

How cheerful the teacher saw his student had managed to find the ring. Until the prayer is said: "I am pleased with you, O Hasyim, I pray that with your devotion and sincerity, your rank will be elevated. You will become a great person, a role model, and everyone will love you.”

Thus the prayer that came out of KH. Kholil Bangkalan. There is no denying that in the future, Kiai Hasyim became a great scholar. Besides Kiai Hasyim is a personal choice, he received "blessings" from his teacher because his teacher was pleased with him.


Pesantren : a place to learn Islamic education, Islamic way of life  and practice Islamic religion in daily life. It combine boarding school and Islamic formal-non normal  education. Led by Islamic teachers who usually called kiai

Sanad : The journey of knowledge and deeply insight in Islam

Kiai     : Islamic teacher

Jamiah : Organization



This article was previously edited on August 27, 2021, and last edited on September 15, 2022.